eiffel tower during daytime

The Eiffel Tower Expands and Shrinks with Temperature Changes

The Eiffel Tower is not just a famous Parisian landmark, it is also a marvel of engineering and a living entity that responds to changes in temperature. The tower’s metal structure expands and contracts with temperature changes, leading to daily variations in its height. In this article, we’ll explore the science behind the Eiffel Tower’s expansion and shrinkage and the remarkable engineering solutions that were put in place to accommodate these changes.

The Science of Thermal Expansion

Thermal expansion is the change in size of a material as its temperature changes. All materials, whether solid, liquid, or gas, expand when heated and contract when cooled. This is due to the movement of the molecules that make up the material. When a material is heated, the molecules move faster, causing them to spread apart and increase the volume of the material. Conversely, when a material is cooled, the molecules slow down, come closer together, and decrease the volume of the material.

The Importance of Thermal Expansion in the Eiffel Tower

The Eiffel Tower is made of wrought iron, a type of iron that is low in carbon and has a fibrous structure. This makes wrought iron an excellent material for the construction of tall structures because it is strong and flexible. However, wrought iron also expands and contracts with temperature changes, making it a challenge to build structures that are stable and safe over time.

The Eiffel Tower was designed to account for thermal expansion by incorporating joints into its structure. These joints allow the tower to expand and contract without putting undue stress on any one part of the structure. The joints also act as shock absorbers, reducing the impact of strong winds and earthquakes. The result is a stable and safe structure that has withstood over 130 years of temperature changes and other environmental stressors.

The Impact of Thermal Expansion on the Height of the Eiffel Tower

The daily expansion and contraction of the Eiffel Tower due to temperature changes results in daily variations in its height. On a warm summer day, the tower can expand by as much as 15 centimeters (6 inches), while on a cold winter day, it can shrink by the same amount. While this may seem like a small amount, it is significant for a structure that stands over 300 meters (1000 feet) tall.

The story of the Eiffel Tower’s expansion and contraction is a fascinating tale of science, engineering, and human ingenuity. The tower’s designers and builders faced a difficult challenge in creating a structure that would withstand the forces of nature and remain stable and safe over time. Through a combination of scientific knowledge and engineering solutions, they were able to create a masterpiece of architectural design that continues to awe visitors from around the world.


The Eiffel Tower is a remarkable example of the interaction between science, engineering, and the natural world. The tower’s ability to expand and contract with temperature changes is a testament to the ingenuity of its designers and builders, who were able to create a structure that is both beautiful and functional. Whether you’re a scientist, an engineer, or simply a lover of beautiful structures, the Eiffel Tower is a fascinating subject that offers endless opportunities for learning and discovery.

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